Nominated Proof of Stake (NPoS)

Learn all about Kusama's Nominated Proof of Stake (NPoS).

Kusama’s Nominated Proof of Stake (NPoS) selects the validator set. The two key parties involved in NPoS are validators and nominators. Nominators nominate validator candidates they trust to participate in block production. Each nominator can submit a list of up to 16 validators that they support with their stake. In the following epoch (a standard timeframe for block production, lasting 4 hours), validators with the most amount of KSM staked to them become elected for block production. Anyone can help secure the network by running their own validator node, while there are no particular requirements to become a nominator. Kusama aims for proportional justified representation, meaning no validators and their associated nominators are over or under represented. To achieve this, Kusama gives elected validators equal voting power in the consensus protocol.